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Copyright 2003. Laurence C. Hatch. All Rights Reserved.
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var. pyramidata 'Arnold Sentinel' - columnar, 25 feet tall x 7 feet wide in the original Arnold Arb. tree (24 years). Fairly vigorous at times with growth to 12 inches a year. 'Obelisk' is a slower.

'Aurea' - open loose habit, needles yellow, grey, and greyish. They mature by summer to yellow-green and then medium green by the next year.

'Balcanica' - dwarf, mounded to cushion-shaped, dense, can be weak, needles 3-4mm long

'Bambino' - dwarf, dense, globose, 2 inches a year. Shorter needle. Showy white buds in winter.

'Benelux' - dwarf of European origin.

'Black Prince' - globose, dwarf, quite dense, very dark green, 3 inches growth a year. Source: Stanley and Sons Nursery (says "Nicest dwarf Austrian pine we have seen"). A selection from Don Hatch of England. van Gelderen and van Hoey Smith in their photographic masterpiece suggest hybridization or affinity to P. thunbergiana.

'Brepo' - dwarf, quicker than 'Bambino' and with a longer needles says Bob Fincham.

'Buda' - needles irregularly and faintly mottled white to cream. Barabits Nursery intro.

'Bujotii' - branchlets dense and clustered on trunk, no spreading or major limbs, leaves curled and dark

'Candlewood'  - conical, more erect, needles with 2 tan or pale bands. Showy in spring but very odd to ugly other times.

'Caperci's Golden Cream' - new growth golden-cream by one report.

'Chinto' - dwarf, subglobose but needles very long and spreading in all directions for a prickly look.

'Columnaris' - columnar. A dubious name and perhaps part of var. pyramidata. van Gelderen and van Hoey Smith (1996) state a number of forms "especially in Turkey" have been reported.

'Contorta' - dense, spready, branchlets upcurving, needles thick and twisted

ENCI™ - mounded, 5 feet tall x 5 feet wide, rich dark green needles

'Falcata' - needles curving or sickle-shaped (falcate)

'Frank' - dense, columnar, light green and shorter needles. Slower than 'Arnold Sentinel'. Introduced by Mitsch Nurseries OR USA.

'Frühlingsgold' - vigorous, new needles 90% yellow, later more green, very green by the second year.

'Gaent de Suisse' - upright, broadly pyramidal to loose globose overall, nearly all branches ascending and separated in an almost cactus-like presentation of columns, needles longer and darker green.

'Globosa' - semi-dwarf, globose and eventually flat-topped, 4 inches growth a year, dark green, 24 inches tall in 20 years. A doubtful name in Latin.

'Globosa Viridis' - dwarf, globose, needles long for a dwarf clone, to about 1.5m tall. May be 'Globosa' which is also of doubtful Latin validity.

'Globus' - globose, dwarf. From Barabits Nursery, Hungary.

'Helena' ('Variegated' US in part) - more spreading, needles variably gold mottled or green and gold. Some are just speckled.  Source: Stanley and Sons Nursery (introduced c. 1992)

'Helga' - dwarf, irregularly globose  and very dark green. Needles longer than many globose and witchesbroom clones.

click image to enlarge

'Hornibrookiana' - low, mounded to spreading, dense, glossy thick needles of 5-6cm long. The most popular dwarf cultivar. The numerous tan candles give it much interest. It is more elegant and informal than most P. mugo cultivars. This is one of the best known dwarf pines as it has been grown since the 1930's.

var. maritima 'Koekelare' - vigorous, blue-green to grey-green and shorter needles. A forest strain that is appealing.

var. nigra 'Magnifica' - very dense, needles dark green and longer

'Mollette' ('Molette') - columnar. van Gelderen and van Hoey Smith states it is similar to 'Obelisk' and "perhaps the same". There at are a dozen columnar clones around and they need a good, scientific sorting out.

'Monstrosa' - dwarf, irregular, branches short and sometimes fasciated in the original European clone. Jacobson (1996) points out the large Rochester NY tree at 34 feet tall and 12 feet wide is surely something different. It is more narrowly pyramidal, whorled, and with odd contorted needles.

'Morris WB' - upright globose, light green, 3 inches a year. From Jerry Morris.

'Moseri' - dwarf, subglobose, foliage bright green becoming golden-yellow and showy in winter

'Nana' - spreading shrub, not a small dwarf, branches shorter

'Nishiki' - needles banded golden-orange

click image to enlarge
Conifer Collection, Dawes Arboretum. Summer 2003. A very dense and richly needled plant. I was impressed. LCH.

'Obelisk' - narrowly columnar, 6-8 inches growth a year (less than 'Arnold Setinel' at 8-12 inches). van Gelderen and van Hoey Smith states it is similar to 'Molette' and "perhaps the same".

'Pendula' - spreading to pendulous

'Prostrata' - low and prostrate, geniculate or elbow-shaped trunk, forming wide irregular mats. Not always dense or appealing as other prostrate pines.,

'Pumila Aurea' - dwarf, yellowish foliage. Probably lost to gardens.

'Pygmaea' - dwarf, slow, mounded to subglobose but eventually low-spreading, irregular 6-8cm needles. Some plants under this name have proven to be P. sylvestris 'Moseri'.

'Pyramidalis' - pyramidal, shorter, 12-15cm long needles with more bluish-green color.

subsp. pallasiana var. pyramidata - variable with densely columnar to broadly pyramidal, shrubby, to 4m or more, needles straight. It is not 'Pyramidalis'. The variety is variable and affinities of all erect clones to it remain unclear. 'Arnold Sentinel' is one of the most commercial clones so far.

'Salzman' ('Salzmanii' invalid) - gray-green foliage, vigorous tree form

'Select Green' - pyramidal, somewhat open, rich green and more appressed needles for a distinct bottlebrush look that can be compared to P. leucodermis.

subsp. pallasiana var. seneceriana - an showy variety with subglobose to densely pyramidal form. In Turkey this taxon is a very pleasant tree in particular and old examples.

'Spielberg' - semi-dwarf to 1.5m tall, very dark green.

'Stanley Gold' - large sections of new growth entirely yellow, brighter than 'Aurea'. We suspect this is 'Helena' introduced by Stanley & Sons, OR USA (see above listing).

'Strypemonde' - slower, shrubby, full-sized needles in semi-dense globose to broadly pyramidal shape.

'Trompenberg' - dwarf, from a witches broom.

'Variegata' - needles light and green in a mix. For the modern 'Variegated' see 'Helena'

'Variegated'  in part = 'Helena'

'Villetta Barrea' - shorter to 14-16m tall, needles 5-10cm long and more sharply rigid. A more durable strain.

'Wuerstle' - dwarf, dense, globose to mounded, needles long for a dwarf. From Germany.

var. pyramidata 'Zehra' - narrowly columnar, quite dense.

'Zlatiborica' - needles golden yellow.